The Bhagvad Gita
The following information is as explained to me by my yoga guru Shri C S R Prabhu.
The Bhagwad Gita mentions the three basic kinds of Yoga or ways to achieve moksha or salvation.
1. Bhakti Yoga - The Yoga of Devotion.
Here you surrender to God- and he will redeem you. Christianity is a typical example of Bhakti Yoga
2. Karma Yoga The Yoga of Action
"Work is worship". God can be reached, salvation achieved by dedicating yourself to your job, with your full heart and soul. The job should be as per your nature and have a productive use for society..
3. Gyana Yoga The Yoga of Knowledge
This is the forerunner of philosophy Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, Descartes. All these were Gyan Yogis, who by discovering themselves, discovered God.
Another typical classification is Hatha Yoga and Raj Yoga. Hatha Yoga or the Physical Yoga is the stepping stone for Raj Yoga or the Yoga of the Mind.
Patanjali Yoga or Asht-anga (asht=eight, anga=limb) Yoga is the eight-limbed path of yama and niyama (moral codes), asana (posture), pranayama (breathing practices), pratyahara, (withdrawal of the senses from their objects) dharana (concentration on a pre-determined object to the exclusion of others ), dhyana (meditation, or attention or awareness), and samadhi (liberation, salvation, superconsciousness)
Mantra Yoga or Japa Yoga involves chanting of Mantras. Kriya Yoga involves a special type of Hatha Yoga with a focus on Bandhas and mudras and also the last four components of Ashtanga Yoga
Tantra aims to achieve moksh in this life, this moment, through the medium of sexual energy. Nad Yoga is the Yoga of Sound.. The list is endless !
The Bhagwad Gita is the ultimate yogic text. Shri C S R Prabhu delivered a whole lecture series covering all the 18 chapters of the Gita. We could record them from Chapter 5 onwards. The links are given below